Changes in coffee intake and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes: three large cohorts of US men and women

Springer: April 2014



Coffee and tea consumption has been associated with a lower type 2 diabetes risk but little is known about how changes in coffee and tea consumption influence subsequent type 2 diabetes risk. We examined the associations between 4 year changes in coffee and tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in the subsequent 4 years.


We prospectively followed 48,464 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 1986–2006), 47,510 women in NHS II (1991–2007) and 27,759 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1986–2006). Diet was assessed every 4 years using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Self-reported cases of incident type 2 diabetes were validated by supplementary questionnaires. Read more