Consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Am J Clin Nutr: June 4, 2014

Background: Relations between the consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and diabetes have not been well established.

Objective: We systematically investigated and quantified associations of nut and legume consumption with incident IHD, stroke, and diabetes.

Design: We systematically searched multiple databases to identify randomized controlled trials or observational studies that examined the relations. Studies were excluded if they reported only intermediate physiologic measures, soft cardiovascular outcomes, or crude risk estimates. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate. We assessed pooled dose-response relations by using a generalized least-squares trend estimation, and prespecified sources of heterogeneity were assessed by using metaregression. The potential for publication bias was explored by using funnel plots, Begg’s and Egger’s tests, and Duval and Tweedie trim-and-fill methods. Read More