Delayed neurological deterioration after subarachnoid hemorrhage

Nature Reviews Neurology: December 10, 2013

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes early brain injury (EBI) that is mediated by effects of transient cerebral ischaemia during bleeding plus effects of the subarachnoid blood. Secondary effects of SAH include increased intracranial pressure, destruction of brain tissue by intracerebral haemorrhage, brain shift, and herniation, all of which contribute to pathology. Many patients survive these phenomena, but deteriorate days later from delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI), which causes poor outcome or death in up to 30% of patients with SAH. DCI is thought to be caused by the combined effects of angiographic vasospasm, arteriolar constriction and thrombosis, cortical spreading ischaemia, and processes triggered by EBI. Treatment for DCI includes prophylactic administration of nimodipine, and current neurointensive care. Read more