Income Disparity and Risk of Death: The Importance of Health Behaviors and Other Mediating Factors

Plosone: 11/19/12

Income disparities in mortality are profound in the United States, but reasons for this remain largely unexplained. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of health behaviors, and other mediating pathways, separately and simultaneously, including health insurance, health status, and inflammation, in the association between income and mortality.


This study used data from 9925 individuals aged 20 years or older who participated in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and were followed up through December 31, 2006 for mortality. The outcome measures were all-cause and CVD/diabetes mortality. During follow-up 505 persons died, including 196 deaths due to CVD or diabetes. Read more