The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism: January 11, 2013
Context: The discovery of limited joint mobility (LJM) as the earliest clinically apparent complication of diabetes in children and adolescents nearly 40 years ago provided insights into the mechanism of diabetes complications.
Results: LJM, due to periarticular connective tissue thickening and stiffness, varied from single joint involvement bilaterally to obvious hand deformity and limitation of movement of the spine. Thick, tight, waxy skin was apparent with more severe changes; biopsy indicated thickening of the dermis and epidermis with accumulation of collagen and loss of skin appendages. Substantial growth impairment was associated with all levels of LJM. Risk for microvascular disease over a 16-year period was actuarially increased nearly 4-fold by the presence of LJM. Long-term glycemic control influenced the onset of LJM; for every unit increase in average glycated hemoglobin from onset there was a 46% increase in the risk of LJM. Read more