Putting PAID to Diabetes-Related Distress: The Potential Utility of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) Scale in Patients with Diabetes

Science Direct: January 4, 2013


Distress and depression are commonly reported negative affects in people with diabetes (PWD), and may influence glycemic control. ‘Distress’ can be measured as general or diabetes-related. ‘Depression’ is considered through symptom severity or episodes of depressive disorder, both potentially derived by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). While current depressive disorder is found to affect the course of diabetes mellitus (DM), past depressive disorder may have a similar impact.


To test the relationships between DM-distress (measured by the Problem Areas in Diabetes instrument [PAID]) and glycemic control, while considering the effects of general distress; depression severity; and both current and previous depressive disorder. Read more