The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

BMC Medical Ethics 2012, 13:16 doi:10.1186/1472-6939-13-16 -Published: 8 July 2012.
The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations.


We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Read more